Hostilities between rivals India and Pakistan on Wednesday (26 November) threatened to scupper efforts by South Asian leaders to boost trade among almost a quarter of the world’s people, throwing into doubt any prospect of a regional customs union.

India and Pakistan have fought three wars, and just last month exchanges of fire across the border in disputed Kashmir killed 20 people. The bickering spilled into a two-day regional summit in Kathmandu, and their leaders refused to meet.

Indian and Nepali officials said Pakistan declined to sign three multilateral pacts with the eight members of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC).

The agreements aim to boost road trade and electricity sharing, including across Pakistan’s heavily militarized border with India.

In an apparent reference to Pakistan, India’s foreign ministry spokesman said one country had cited incomplete “internal processes” for not signing the pacts, but stopped short of naming it.

Pakistani officials did not respond to telephone calls seeking comment.

Such a refusal threatens efforts by Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi to make South Asia a viable economic counterweight to China and limit Beijing’s role in the region.

Regional integration would happen “through SAARC or outside it,” Modi warned the summit, if the grouping failed to agree on the pacts.

Nepal’s former foreign secretary, Madhu Raman Acharya, echoed the sentiment, urging the grouping to step up “sub-regional cooperation”.

Pakistan also said it does not see any prospect of having structured talks with India in the near future and made it clear that the ball is in India’s court to initiate dialogue.
Pakistan Prime Minister’s Advisor on Foreign Affairs and National Security Sartaj Aziz said India had cancelled the Foreign Secretary-level talks and it was for it to initiate talks.

“I do not see any structured talks between the two countries any time soon,” Aziz said when asked whether there was any possibility of talks between the two countries.

Noting that Pakistan was ready for talks, he said the initiative has to come from India.

“We are ready for talks with India. But the initiative will have to come from India as they had cancelled the Foreign Secretary-level talks,” he said.

External Affairs Ministry Spokesman Syed Akbaruddin said India has no plans for a structured meeting between Prime Minister Narendra Modi and his Pakistani counterpart Nawaz Sharif on the sidelines of the 18th SAARC Summit here.

“We don’t have any plan for a structured meeting between our Prime Minister and the Pakistani Prime Minister simply because we have not received a request to that extent,” Akbaruddin said.

Sparse Achievement So Far
Almost all the leaders at the summit expressed dismay at Sabre’s sparse achievements since it was founded 29 years ago aiming to become a European-style union.

Despite a free trade pact since 2006, trade among South Asian nations makes up five percent of their total trade. They share few transport and power links.

China, free of the baggage that makes much of the region wary of India, has built ports and sold weapons across South Asia, where its new Asian Investment Infrastructure Bank has attracted interest, including from India. Through Pakistan, China suggested it play a larger role in the regional grouping, but India rebuffed the proposal.

Modi held two-way talks with every leader except Pakistan’s Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif, since neither was ready to make the first move to defuse tension between the nuclear-armed states.

Modi relaxed visa rules, spotlighted new energy ties with Bangladesh and Nepal and promised to cut India’s trade surplus with neighbours, but said progress in ties was too slow.

“Is it because we are stuck behind the walls of our differences and hesitant to move out of the shadows of the past?” Modi asked.